College students take part in a campaign at Gwanghwamun Square in central Seoul early this month to promote the East Sea ahead of the International Hydrographic Organization's general meeting in Monaco April 23-27. The organization will determine how to describe the body of water between the Korean Peninsula and Japan in the world's most creditable guideline for maps./ Korea Times file
Long-festering naming controversy to be debated in IHO meeting next week
"Until the East Sea's waves are dry, Mt. Baekdu are worn away, as God protects our land, our Korea lasts forever, manse!..." This is part of the Korean national anthem "Aegukka".
The "East Sea" ("Donghae" in Korean) is mentioned in the first line of "Aegukka", literally meaning an ode to Koreans' patriotism. The East Sea is not just a body of water - it is the history of Korea, the soul of Koreans. So, it's not up for geographical appellation debate.
The East Sea, or the "Sea of Japan?" What to call the body of water bordered by Korea, Japan and Russia remains controversial. The Republic of Korea insists on the East Sea, while Japan claims it's the Sea of Japan.
Koreans have called the waters the East Sea for about 2,000 years, as seen in their national anthem, according to historical documents. The Sea of Japan has been in use since the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), a body in charge of naming the oceans and seas, used the name in its first edition of "Limits of Oceans and Seas" in 1929. The long-festering controversy will again be debated in an IHO general meeting in Monaco from April 23 to 27.
In general, geographical names reflect the history, culture, lifestyle and philosophy of the people who use them. The name East Sea is no exception. The East Sea, a name deeply rooted in the lives of the Korean people, first appears in a historical document dating back to as early as 59 B.C. In the "History of the Three Kingdoms" ("Samguksagi", ), the name East Sea was used in a chapter on King Dongmyeong, the founder of Goguryeo (one of the three ancient kingdoms in Korea). This proves that the name East Sea dates back more than 2,000 years, 1,700 years before the first appearance of the name Sea of Japan in "Mappamondo", a publication by Italian missionary Matteo Ricci in 1602.
Historically, the East Sea has been an integral part of Korean history. It's not up for a matter of debate.
It has a stronger claim over the Sea of Japan. A noteworthy example of the use of the name East Sea is the inscription on the stele of King Gwanggaeto of the Goguryeo Kingdom in 414 A.D. Since the territory of Goguryeo at that time extended as far as Manchuria in China, the name East Sea encompassed the waters not only east of the Korean Peninsula but east of the entire Eurasian continent as well. The stele was erected by King Jangsu in 414 A.D. in memory of the great work of his father, King Gwanggaeto of the Goguryeo Kingdom (37 B.C.-668 A.D.).
Nowadays, many of the world's prominent cartographers and the media are beginning to recognize the validity of the name East Sea, and have moved away from the single use of Sea of Japan to the concurrent use of both names.
In some cases they even use only the name East Sea. In this view, the single use of Sea of Japan is problematic. Such trends suggest growing support and understanding for the name East Sea in the international community.
Japan is also starting to acknowledge that many prominent mapmaking companies are changing from the single use of Sea of Japan to the concurrent use of both names. Studies carried out by Japan and Korea respectively show that maps using both names concurrently are on the rise, increasing from 2.8 percent in 2000 to 10.8 percent (18.1 percent in the case of commercial maps) in 2005, followed by 23.8 percent in 2007 and then to 28.07 percent in 2009. These can be confirmed in such materials as booklets by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs called "Sea of Japan" (2002) and "A Historical Overview of the Name 'Sea of Japan'" and surveys by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade of the Republic of Korea in 2007 and 2009.
According to Dr. David Munro, a British scholar of toponymy, geographical names are an expression of perceptions of a place, a means of communication about that place and a way of referencing. Since geographical names are a part of the lives of the people who use them, it is common practice to give the highest priority to the names used by local people when deciding on a name for international use.
More in favor of East Sea
Lying between Korea and Japan and extending north toward Russia, the area in question includes the territorial waters and exclusive economic zones (EEZs) of the countries encircling it. In other words, several countries share jurisdiction and sovereign rights over the sea. Furthermore, the body of water falls within the definition of a "semi-enclosed sea" as set out in the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea. A "semi-enclosed sea" is a gulf, basin or sea surrounded by two or more states and connected to another sea or the ocean by a narrow outlet or consisting entirely or primarily of the territorial seas and exclusive economic zones of the two or more coastal states.
When two or more countries share a geographical feature, its designation is generally standardized through consultations between the countries concerned. If efforts to standardize it fail, however, the names used by each of the countries are used concurrently. This general rule of international cartography is also confirmed in the IHO Technical Resolution A4.2.6. adopted in 1974 and the United Nations Resolution in the Standardization of Geographical Names III/20 adopted in 1977.
International Hydrographic Organization Technical Resolution A4.2.6 International Standardization of Geographical Names (1974) states:
"It is recommended that when two or more countries share a given geographical feature (such as a bay, strait, channel or archipelago) under a different name form, they should endeavor to reach an agreement on fixing a single name for the feature concerned. If they have different official languages and cannot agree on a common name form, it is recommended that the name forms of each of the languages in question should be accepted for charts and publications unless technical reasons prevent this practice on small scale charts, e.g. English Channel/La Manche".
Japan has continuously put forward a false argument that the name Sea of Japan has been authorized by the United Nations. However, it is the United Nations Secretariat, not the United Nations itself that uses Sea of Japan. This is merely a practice of convenience, which is not relevant to the opinions of the 193 member states of the United Nations. The U.N. Secretariat uses Sea of Japan in accordance with a practice to use the most widespread and generally recognized denomination in the absence of an internationally agreed standard. However, the U.N. Secretariat has clarified that its use of Sea of Japan does not constitute an official position of the United Nations but rather a practice of the Secretariat.
Furthermore, it emphasized that the practice should not be interpreted as advocating or endorsing any party's position, and can in no way be invoked by any party in support of a particular position on the matter. Therefore, Japan's argument is obviously a misleading interpretation of the U.N. Secretariat's practice and is clearly false.
More than half of the IHO's working group on the standardization of geographical names rejected a proposal to name the 978,000-square-kilometer area the Sea of Japan. The working group is made up of experts from 27 of the intergovernmental consultative organization's 80 member countries.
The chairman of the IHO working group recently asked its 27 members, including the United States and China, to give their opinion on a compromise deal, which would name it the Sea of Japan and use the East Sea as an alternative name in the appendix.
In this regard, it was confirmed that slightly more than half of them expressed their disapproval for the proposal. China has indirectly expressed its displeasure with the suggestion, saying the "decision should be reached through a consensus". France and Australia have reportedly expressed strong support for Korea's demand to use both the East Sea and Sea of Japan to refer to the body of water.
The appellation Sea of Japan is a legacy of Tokyo's brutal 35-year colonial rule over the Korean Peninsula, which ended in 1945 upon its defeat in World War II. Japan is believed to have begun to refer to the disputed area as the Sea of Japan in the late 18th century. It has been the dominant name for the body of water in the past century as it was commonly adopted by cartographers during the Japanese colonial rule of Korea. It is nonsensical to name a sea surrounded by four countries after only one of them.
Some experts have said that is common to name the body of water after the land on the left side of the sea, which in this case would be Korea, or the Sea of Korea, according to Philip Iglauer, an expert well versed in the appellation of oceans and seas. We live in a postcolonial world and we need postcolonial sensitivity.
Park Chang-seok is a research fellow of the Korea Institute of Public Administration (KIPA) under the Prime Minister's Office. Park, a former managing editor of The Korea Times and a Kyung Hee University professor, is currently working on a book titled "Korean Maritime Sovereignty'' planned to be published around the end of this year.
Halo Problems an Apology for Disrespectful HabitIn opposition toLovers kiddy_nights November 24, 2015 0 The fans of the newly-debuted crew Halo are very dissatisfied amongst their behavior, in which they threw out the items and letters given to them via fans, addingone of the most letters written by non-Korean fans in Korean. It's farstated that the letters that were discovered in the trash can were no longer evening opened.
Halos behavior did now notprevent there. They've complained of being bored and tired at a fan signing event, and the leader Ooon and member Yoon Dong have made it obtrusive to their fans that they've got girlfriends.
Ooon posted a photo of his female frienddressed in his favourite shirt, and the couple have showed off their couple telephoneinstances as well.
On November 30, an legit press liberate from HALO’s aspect said, “Yesterday the contributors of HALO met at once with their fans to diffuse the debate in person.” Consistent with their agency, the members discussed with their fans quite so much ofproblems that had circulated on social media, adding reports that leader Ooon gave fans’ items to his female friend equally a couple item, and that member Dino once composed a poem with a fan’s call in it the usage of an beside the point word.
A message a fan gained from leader Ooon.
Dino uploaded a letter at the fancafe, writing, “I feel in charge that I wasn’t in a position to cope with my team as the oldest member. We attempted to manner fans like a friendly vicinity oppa, yetI suspect nosotros just created more misunderstandings. Please settle for our honest apologies.”
EXO and TaeTiSeo Might be Donating Quantitiesin their New Album Profits to Charityck525 November 30, 2015 0 EXO and TaeTiSeo are enteringthe vacation giving spirit and should donate a a phase of the profits from their Christmas albums to charity.
EXO will be freeing their wintry weather special album “Sing For You” on December 21 on and offline. There'll beeither a Korean and a Chinese edition and a portion of the profits will be donated to “SMile for U,” a crusade held between SM Entertainment and UNICEF.
TaeTiSeo, too, will be releasing a new Christmas album “Dear Santa” on December 4. The lyrics for their identify song “Dear Santa” was once written through Seohyun, and the group’s soothing voices blend in smartly with the coziness of winter. Portions of this albums profit, as well, will be donated in opposition to “SMile for U.”
Royal Pirates Indicate Their Differences From Other Korean Rock Bandsck525 November 30, 2015 0 Rock band Royal Pirates pinpointed how they were other from FT Island and CNBLUE.
The exhibit for Royal Pirates’s new album “3.3” was oncehung on November 30. All through the event, the band turned into asked how they were various from other bands reminiscent ofToes Island and CNBLUE.
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According to the report, back in November 2012 at a Korean BBQ place, Kim Chang Ryul told Kim, 'You have 'celebrity disease' and slapped him several times along side abusive language. He also took the bankbook and credit cards owned by 3 of the former Wonder Boyz members. He kept information technology for himself and all the style through the span of 3 months, he took 30 million won (approx.$25,912 U.S.).
His company's aspect told a news outlet, "We can wager as to why one of these news got here out. Yetattack does no longer make any sense. We're going to continue with this during the law."
Now if this userin point of fact is a former Wonder Boyz member (the staff has since disbanded), it looks to be member Kim Taehyun, as he suits the remaining name and the age.
A post on Pann is amassing much attention for its predicted indexed and published it with the title, “This is the solution for MAMA winners.” The list, then on, much reactions from netizens as they pitch their own mindon their lonesome artists and advised that EXO, Giant Bang, Girls’ Generation and more must win.
Find out what Netizens had to mention about this text below!
Song of the Year: Enormous Bang
How may just they even consider a state of affairs where BTS will hit Day-6 Member in ther face??? thank god he dealt well with it.I feel embarrassed.ㅠㅠㅠ this is why we think international fans are hopeless..i would rather they didnt stand our boys..Everywhere you cross International fans are the problemSeriously marring the fandoms nameᆢ International fansSTOPDay 6 fans got so bored stiff and made this lol Source: Instiz
Surprise Kiss Scene Between Yoo Seung Ho and SunPublished ck525 November 30, 2015 0 Pictures of MAMAMOOs Solar giving Yoo Seung Ho a surprise kiss were revealed.
Fans swooned at symbol posted by capability of MBC every1’s “Imaginary Cat” that showed the candy peck at the cheek shared between Yoo Seung Ho and Solar. The shy love between topfacultyscholars Hyun Jong Hyun (played by Yoo Seung Ho) and Jung Soo In (played by Solar) are adequate to make fans longing forthe impending episode.
In the images, Yoo Seung Ho looks stunned nonethelesscompletely happy to get maintain of a surprise kiss from Solar. The awkward yet affectionate air of new lovers still surround the two, which adds directly tothe entire sweetness of the photo.
Little SEO Woo Captures Hearts on “The Go back of Superman”notclaira November 30, 2015 0 On November 29, actress Jung Si Ah’s daughter Seo Woo made an appearance on “The Return of Superman” with Lee Hwi Jae and the twins.
Seo Woo first stuck people’s eye via her mother’s non-public Instagram, where the little womanpresentations off her doll-like looks in quite so much ofadorablegarments and costumes. Many of us had expressed hobby in seeing Seo Woo on the preferredtype program “The Return of Superman.”
Lee Hwi Jae said, “Jung Si Ah and I've beenbuddies since we were young. These days nosotros met at a marriage and mentioned our kids. I stated we mustdevourin combination sometime.”
If you remember, we had in the past written about a photographer who took quite so much offootage of 'North Korean beauties' and shared them on her website. When thoseimages were shown to several Korean guys, none were too impressed. One guy even called one of the mostgirls 'scary' because of her sharp, nearly model-like features, whilst many acknowledged that the ladies looked 'countrified' or tacky.
At the finish of the video, the guys were asked what their first impressions were on these North Korean beauties and what they idea approximately the prime rate of plastic surgical operation in South Korea. If you need to have to listen their answers, watch the clip above to discover out!